DescriptionThe Tupolev Tu-104 (NATO reporting name: Camel) was a twinjet medium-range narrow-body turbojet-powered Soviet airliner.
It was the second jet airliner to enter in regular service, behind the British de Havilland Comet, and was the only jetliner operating in the world from 1956 to 1958, when the British jetliner was grounded due to safety matters.
In 1957, Czechoslovak Airlines – ČSA, (now Czech Airlines) became the first airline in the world to fly a route exclusively with jet airliners, using the Tu-104A variant between Prague and Moscow. In civil service, the Tu-104 carried over 90 million passengers with Aeroflot (then the world's largest airline), and a lesser number with ČSA, while it also saw operation with the Soviet Air Force. Its successors included the Tu-124, the Tu-134 and the Tu-154.
The Tu-104 was powered by two Mikulin AM-3 turbojets placed in the wing roots (resembling the configuration of the de Havilland Comet). The crew consisted of five people: two pilots, a navigator (seated in the glazed "bomber" nose), a flight engineer and a radio operator (later eliminated). The airplane raised great curiosity by its lavish "Victorian" interior – so-called by some Western-hemisphere observers – due to the materials used: mahogany, copper and lace.
For more information, including the lengthy list of variants, click here.
- Crew: 7 Capacity: 50–115 passengers
- 40.06 m (131 ft 5 in)
- 34.54 m (113 ft 4 in)
- 11.9 m (39 ft 1 in)
- Wing Area:
- 183 m2 (1,970 sq ft) less LERX (Leading edge extensions)
- Empty Weight:
- 43,800 kg (96,562 lb)
- Gross weight: 78,100 kg (172,181 lb)
- Fuel Capacity:
- 21,000 kg (46,297 lb) normal ; 26,500 kg (58,422 lb) maximum
- 2 × Mikulin AM-3M-500 turbojet engines, 95 kN (21,400 lbf) thrust each
- Maximum speed: 950 km/h (590 mph, 510 kn)
- Cruise Speed:
- 750–850 km/h (470–530 mph; 400–460 kn) at 10,000–12,000 m (32,808–39,370 ft)
- 2,120 km (1,320 mi, 1,140 nmi) with 12,000 kg (26,455 lb) payload and 5,650 kg (12,456 lb) fuel reserve 2,750 km (1,709 mi) with 8,150 kg (17,968 lb) payload and 5,650 kg (12,456 lb) fuel reserve
- Takeoff Dist.:
- at MTOW: 2,200 m (7,218 ft)
- Landing Dist.:
- at normal landing weight: 1,450–1,850 m (4,757–6,070 ft) without brake parachute
- Rate of Climb:
- 10 m/s (2,000 ft/min)
- Service Ceiling:
- 12,000 m (39,000 ft)