DescriptionThe Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka (from Sturzkampfflugzeug, "dive bomber") was a German dive bomber and ground-attack aircraft.
Designed by Hermann Pohlmann, it first flew in 1935. The Ju 87 made its combat debut in 1937 with the Luftwaffe's Condor Legion during the Spanish Civil War and served the Axis forces in World War II.
The aircraft is easily recognisable by its inverted gull wings and fixed spatted undercarriage. Upon the leading edges of its faired main gear legs were mounted the Jericho-Trompete (Jericho trumpet) wailing sirens, becoming the propaganda symbol of German air power and the so-called Blitzkrieg victories of 1939–1942. The Stuka's design included several innovations, including automatic pull-up dive brakes under both wings to ensure that the aircraft recovered from its attack dive even if the pilot blacked out from the high g-forces.
An estimated 6,500 Ju 87s of all versions were built between 1936 and August 1944.
The Ju 87 was a single-engined all-metal cantilever monoplane. It had a fixed undercarriage and could carry a two-person crew. The main construction material was duralumin, and the external coverings were made of duralumin sheeting. Parts that were required to be of strong construction, such as the wing flaps, were made of Pantal (a German aluminium alloy containing titanium as a hardening element) and its components made of Elektron. Bolts and parts that were required to take heavy stress were made of steel.
The Ju 87 was fitted with detachable hatches and removable coverings to aid and ease maintenance and overhaul. The designers avoided welding parts wherever possible, preferring moulded and cast parts instead. Large airframe segments were interchangeable as a complete unit, which increased speed of repair.
For more details on the design, production, operational history and variants, click here.
- Crew: 2
- 11.10 m (36 ft 5 in)
- 13.805 m (45 ft 3.5 in)
- 4.01 m (13 ft 2 in)
- Wing Area:
- 31.900 sq m (343.37 sq ft)
- Empty Weight:
- 2,712 kg (5,980 lb) * Empty equipped weight: 2,760 kg (6,090 lb)
- 4,336 kg (9,560 lb)
- 1 × Junkers Jumo 211Da V-12 inverted liquid-cooled piston engine, 890 kW (1,200 hp) for take-off 820 kW (1,100 hp) at 1,500 m (4,920 ft)
- Maximum speed: 339.6 km/h (211.0 mph, 183.4 kn) at sea level 383 km/h (238 mph; 207 kn) at 4,087 m (13,410 ft)
- Cruise Speed:
- 209 km/h (130 mph, 113 kn) at 4,572 m (15,000 ft)
- 595.5 km (370.0 mi, 321.5 nmi) with 500 kg (1,102 lb) bomb 789 km (490 mi; 426 nmi) without bomb load
- Rate of Climb:
- 2.3 m/s (450 ft/min). Time to altitude: 1,000 m (3,281 ft) in 2 minutes 2,000 m (6,562 ft) in 4 minutes 18 seconds 3,716 m (12,190 ft) in 12 minutes